Once chronic infection is established, anti-viral treatment is available to suppress viral replication and thus inflammation. However, once end-stage complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma occur, definitive treatment options such as liver transplantation are not available in many parts of Africa. Of the great majority of individuals infected, only some need treatment (as the virus can remain “dormant” for years). As of today, most treatment options include “viral suppression”, which involves taking a medication daily to “suppress” the virus and limit inflammation and damage. The decision to treat or not treat a person with Hepatitis B is based on several parameters such as age, viral replication, liver inflammation, and liver damage among others. In general, it is recommended that clinicians with experience or training in Hepatitis B management make the decision (with the patient) on whether to start or not treatment.